1)Carbon makes up a large portion of human composition, and of
living organisms on earth. Given that carbon makes up so little of
the elements in earths crust or atmosphere, how do “we” not run
out of carbon for living organisms?
2) Hydrocarbons are not utilized by living organisms without
modifications. What are the modifying molecules called? What
properties do these molecules give to hydrocarbons so they can
3) List a real-life example of a monomer and a polymer
4) List 2 major functions polysaccharides provide organisms.
5) Chemically, how are carbohydrates and lipids different from each
other (at least 2 different things)?
6) How does saturation of a fatty acid affect its physical structure
(think about temperature)?
7) Phospholipids make up what essential cellular structure? What
unique physical property do they have?
8) List 3 steroids. What class of biomolecule do steroids belong to?
In what way is cholesterol good for organisms?
9) Illustrate and name the 3 major functional units of an Amino Acid
molecule. Which functional unit determines the type of amino
10) What the 3 major functional units make up a DNA molecule?
Draw a DNA molecule and label the units.
11) List the nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA
12) What kind of bond forms the “heart” of the DNA double helix?
13) Where can each class of biomolecule be found in a cell?
14) Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. List at
least 2 similarities and 2 differences.
15) Does a single celled organism have to be a prokaryote? Explain
your answer with an example.
16) What goes on inside the nucleus? What is contained inside, and
what is it’s purpose?
17) What are ribosomes? List all the places they can be found in a
18) The endomembrane system includes a number of organelles in a
eukaryotic cell. Describe what happens to a protein as it travels
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